Lately, however, the No.
When a work group is very small, and face-to-face communication is frequent, formal structure may be unnecessary, but in a larger organization decisions have to be made about the delegation of various tasks.
Thus, procedures are established that assign responsibilities for various functions. It is these decisions that determine the organizational structure. Over time these definitions are assigned to positions in the organization rather than to specific individuals.
The relationships among these positions are illustrated graphically in an organizational chart. The best organizational structure for any organization depends on many factors including the work it does; its size in terms of employees, revenue, and the geographic dispersion of its facilities; and the range of its businesses the degree to which it is diversified across markets.
For instance, why are the old, but still operational steel mills such as U. Steel and Bethlehem Steel structured using vertical hierarchies? Why are newer steel mini-mills such as Chaparral Steel structured more horizontally, capitalizing on the innovativeness of their employees?
Part of the reason, as this section discusses, is that organizational structure has a certain inertia—the idea borrowed from physics and chemistry that something in motion tends to continue on that same path. At the beginning of the twentieth century the United States business sector was thriving.
Industry was shifting from job-shop manufacturing to mass production, and thinkers like Frederick Taylor in the United States and Henri Fayol in France studied the new systems and developed principles to determine how to structure organizations for the greatest efficiency and productivity, which in their view was very much like a machine.
Even before this, German sociologist and engineer Max Weber had concluded that when societies embrace capitalism, bureaucracy is the inevitable result.
This created the context for vertically-structured organizations characterized by distinct job classifications and top-down authority structures, or what became known as the traditional or classical organizational structure.
Job specialization, a hierarchical reporting structure through a tightly-knit chain-of-command, and the subordination of individual interests to the superordinate goals of the organization combined to result in organizations arranged by functional departments with order and discipline maintained by rules, regulations, and standard operating procedures.
This classical view, or bureaucratic structure, of organizations was the dominant pattern, as small organizations grew increasingly larger during the economic boom that occurred from the s until the Great Depression of the s.
The Great Depression temporarily stifled U. Post-war rebuilding reignited economic growth, powering organizations that survived the Great Depression toward increasing size in terms of sales revenue, employees, and geographic dispersion.
Along with increasing growth, however, came increasing complexity. Studies of employee motivation raised questions about the traditional model. It was replaced by concerns that traditional organizational structures might prevent, rather than help, promote creativity and innovation—both of which were necessary as the century wore on and pressures to compete globally mounted.
The structure of every organization is unique in some respect, but all organizational structures develop or are consciously designed to enable the organization to accomplish its work.
Typically, the structure of an organization evolves as the organization grows and changes over time. Researchers generally identify four basic decisions that managers have to make as they develop an organizational structure, although they may not be explicitly aware of these decisions.
Unless the organization is very small, the jobs must be grouped in some way. The number of people and jobs that are to be grouped together must be decided, which is related to the number of people that are to be managed by one person.
The way decision-making authority is to be distributed must be determined. In making each of these design decisions, a range of choices are possible.Keywords: ford motor company marketing analys, ford motor company swot Introduction.
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Under his leadership the company’s philanthropic arm, Ford Motor Company Fund and Community Services, focused its efforts on helping communities, supporting education and improving safety through driving skills training. In Ford made former Boeing executive Alan Mulally CEO. He has since cut Ford's work force by one-third and has pared back balkanized brands — Lincoln, Mercury, Jaguar — in favor of focusing on Ford. The company seems to be in turnaround mode. A vivid example is the senior management of Ford Motor Company, which sits on nearly $ 15 billion in cash and marketable securities in an industry with excess capacity. Ford’s management has.
He has since cut Ford's work force by one-third and has pared back balkanized brands — Lincoln, Mercury, Jaguar — in favor of focusing on Ford.
The company seems to be in turnaround mode. The Ford Motor Company Fund (also known as Ford Fund, not affiliated with the Ford Foundation), based in Dearborn, Michigan, is the philanthropic arm of the Ford Motor Company.
Established in  by Henry Ford II [ citation needed ], Ford Fund is a nonprofit corporation financed by contributions from Ford Motor Company.
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